The fiber is immersed in a dye solution at a certain temperature, and the dye moves from the water to the fiber, and the amount of dye in the water gradually decreases, and after a period of time, the equilibrium state is reached. The dye that is removed from the water is the dye that moves onto the fiber. Take out the fiber at any time, even if twisted, the dye still remains in the fiber, and can not simply make the dye completely out of the fiber, this dye combined in the fiber phenomenon, is called dyeing.
1. Fabric matching - the wool embryo from the weaving factory will be put into the cloth truck to wait for the next process according to the production plan of the dyeing factory. Function: ① It is generally placed for 12-24 hours to eliminate the tension during weaving and prevent dyeing due to the tension of the embryo cloth. ② Open the unopened embryo. For example, to wash, order and so on cloth seed.
2. Washing - mainly used for the process containing OP cloth, through the washing machine to complete (also called scouring). Function: ① Remove the oil, dirt and dirt on the fabric. ② Relaxed fabric tension and internal stress.
3. Predetermined - Because the fabric contains spandex, when weaving spandex is easy to shrink and easy to produce storage creases and spandex has an oiling process in the production process, in the dyeing should be considered as far as possible to remove the oil, through the reservation of the embryo cloth, ① can basically eliminate the storage creases and creases ② through the predetermined high temperature so that the internal oil of the fabric evaporates to the fabric surface before finishing the oil removal better. ③ Eliminate the edge retraction of spandex fabric and improve the quality of pre-dyeing.
4. Scouring -- polyester elastic knitted fabric, due to uneven force in the process of processing, it often causes creases and wrinkles due to spandex contraction, so as to release fabric tension and relax contraction, but because there is no relaxation machinery, it can only be cleaned and relaxed in the dye tank. Because of the scouring in the dyeing tank, and the dyeing machine has a certain tension, there is no guarantee that the fabric shrinks evenly under the condition of no tension, so there are more abnormalities in the processing of spandex knitting.
5. Dyeing - Key points include:
①. Material requisition -- water inlet -- chemical feed -- additive -- feed -- adjust temperature curve
②. Prone to exceptions:
A, poor operation, dyeing if there is a knot, easy to produce serious color flowers.
B, too fast heating, too fast coloring in a short time; Holding time is not enough, leveling time is not enough.
C, due to water quality supply caused by a period of high hardness factors.
D, PH value is not adjusted properly, especially when using high fastness dyes to make ultra-fine OP-containing cloth, color flowers or color difference are easy to occur.
E, the compatibility of the color formula is not good, the stability of the dye at high temperature is poor, the reproducibility is poor, and the color flower or color difference is easy to occur.
F. The dye cylinder is not cleaned properly when the color of the dyeing cylinder changes, resulting in colored oil stains or blocky flowers on the cloth surface during dyeing.
G, the nozzle size is not appropriate, but also easy to produce strip color flowers.
H, the germ cloth contains large oil, the oil is not clean, and the color flower is easy to produce in the place where the oil is not clean when dyeing.
I. The dyeing capacity is too large or the cloth is too long in the cylinder.
J, dyeing cloth speed is too slow.
K, the effectiveness of the auxiliaries used in dyeing is unstable or the compatibility of dye factors and auxiliaries is poor.
L, slack scouring efficiency is not good.
Common methods of washing
(1) GARMENT WASH is ordinary washing, but the washing we are familiar with is changed to mechanization, its water temperature is about 60°-90°C, plus a certain detergent, after 15 minutes or so of ordinary washing, over water and softener can make the fabric softer, comfortable, more natural and visually cleaner. Usually according to the length of washing time and the amount of chemicals, general washing can be divided into light general washing, general washing, heavy general washing. Usually, the light wash is about 5 minutes, the general wash is about 15 minutes, and the heavy wash is about 30 minutes,(this time is not jingque), and there is no obvious boundary between these three washing methods.
2, STONE WASH (STONE WASH) stone wash is to add a certain size of pumice stone in the washing water, so that the pumice stone and the clothes are polished, and the water level in the polishing tank is carried out at a low water level that the clothes are completely soaked, so that the pumice stone can be in good contact with the clothes. General washing or rinsing can be done before the stone grinding, and rinsing can be done after the stone grinding. According to the different requirements of customers, you can use ** stone, white stone, AAA stone, artificial stone, rubber ball and other washing, in order to achieve different washing effects, after washing the cloth appears gray, old feeling, clothing has slight to severe damage.
3, ENZYME WASH (ENZYME WASH) is a kind of cellulase, it can degrade the fiber structure at a certain PH value and temperature, so that the cloth can be more gently faded, shed hair (produce "peach skin" effect), and get a lasting soft effect. STONE can be used with or in place of stone, and when used with stone, it is often called ENZYME STONE WASH.
4. SAND WASH uses some alkaline and oxidizing additives to make the clothes fade and feel old after washing. If it is matched with stone mill, the surface of the cloth after washing will produce a layer of soft frosting white fluff, and then add some softener to make the fabric soft and soft after washing, thereby improving the comfort of wearing.
(1) sand washing agent
a) Expanding agent: according to the type of fiber, fabric structure and tightness and select the expanding agent and concentration, temperature, time and other expanding conditions, pure cotton clothing sand washing can use alkaline expanding agent such as soda ash to be expanded.
b) Sanding agent: After the clothes are puffed, the fibers are loose, and then with the help of special sanding washing friction, so that the loose surface fibers produce full and soft fuzz, to make the suedown full, it is necessary to choose different shapes and different hardness of sand powder, such as diamond sand (to make the loose fibers produce fluff), polygonal sand (to make the velvet stand), round sand (to make the fluff plump).
c) Softener: Softener for sand washing. It is required to achieve soft waxy, so that the fabric can gain weight, and the drape should be significantly improved. Therefore, the carbon chain of this softener should be long, and has cationic properties, and can be adsorbed on the fabric to achieve the purpose of weight gain.
(2) Sand washing equipment: At present, it is generally used in industrial washing machines for expanding, sand washing and soft treatment, dewatering with centrifugal pump dewatering machine, and drying with rotary dryer used in knitting factory to dry goose down.
(3) Sand washing process: Cotton clothing can be based on the organization structure, warp and weft density and yarn thickness, the strength of twist to determine the type of expansion agent, dosage, temperature and time, as well as the amount of sand washing powder, softener and processing temperature, time, generally speaking, choose yarn fabric sand washing effect is better than thread fabric, thick yarn is better than high yarn, low twist is better than high twist, floating point length is better than floating point short products.
5, CHEMICAL WASH (CHEMICAL WASH) chemical wash is mainly through the use of strong alkali additives (NaOH, NaSiO3, etc.) to achieve the purpose of fading, washing clothes have a more obvious sense of old, and then add softener, clothes will have a soft, full effect. If the STONE is added to the CHEMICAL WASH, it is called the fossil wash (CHEMICAL STONE WASH), which can enhance the fading and wear effect, so that the clothing has a strong sense of old, fossil wash sets the chemical wash and stone wash effect in one, and the effect of imitation old and fuzziness can be achieved after washing
6, in order to make the clothes have a white or bright appearance and soft feel, it is necessary to rinse the clothes, that is, after ordinary washing water, heating to 60°C, according to the depth of the bleaching color, add an appropriate amount of bleaching agent (bleaching agent),7-10 minutes to make the color consistent to the board. During operation, the direction of the bleaching agent should be consistent with the turn of the cylinder, so as to avoid the bleach agent can not be diluted with water as soon as possible and directly fall on the clothing, and local bleaching occurs. Before bleaching, the water level in the tank should be slightly higher to allow for dilution by floating water. After the clothing is bleached to the board, the residual bleaching water in the water is neutralized with large (small) soda (Na2CO3, NaHCO3), so that the bleaching is completely stopped. After the water, add detergent, fluorescent whitening agent, hydrogen peroxide, etc. to the water temperature of 50°C for the final washing, neutralize the PH value, fluorescent whitening, etc., and finally perform soft treatment.
Bleaching can be divided into oxygen bleaching and chlorine bleaching. Oxygen bleaching is the use of hydrogen peroxide oxidation at a certain PH value and temperature to destroy the structure of the dye, so as to achieve the purpose of fading, whitening, generally bleached cloth surface will be slightly red. Chlorine bleaching is the use of sodium hypochlorite oxidation to destroy the structure of dyes, so as to achieve the purpose of fading. Chlorine bleaching has a rough fading effect and is mostly used for rinsing indigo denim. After bleaching the board, the residual chlorine in the water and clothing should be neutralized by sea waves to stop bleaching, and then the STONE grinding is done after bleaching, which is called BLEACH STONE WASH.
7. After the garment is polished with pumice stone and treated with additives, a certain degree of damage will occur in some parts (bone position, collar corner, etc.), and the clothes will have a more obvious antiquated effect after washing.
8. SNOW WASH soaked the dry pumice stone with potassium permanganate solution, and then polished it directly with the clothing in the special rotating cylinder, and polished it on the clothing through the pumice stone, so that the potassium permanganate oxidizes the friction point, so that the cloth is irregularly faded, forming white spots similar to snowflakes. The general process of snowflake washing is as follows: pumice soaked potassium permanganate - pumice stone and clothes dry ground - snowflake effect on the board - Remove the clothes in the washing tank with clean water to wash off the stone dust on the clothes - oxalic acid neutralization - water washing - softener.
9, MOUSTACHE EFFECT is WHISKER, but WHISKER is a professional. A cat's whiskers is a kind of HAND BRUSH, which is simply ground into the shape of a cat's whiskers.
10. SPRAY STONEWASH/SAND BLAST. This is done by using special equipment (figurative is a large electric toothbrush, but in the shape of a roller) to polish the cloth, usually with an inflatable model.
11, the essential difference between MONKEY WASH and sand spray is that the former is a chemical effect, and the latter is a physical effect. Monkey spray is to spray potassium permanganate solution to the clothing according to the design requirements, and chemical reactions occur to make the fabric fade. The degree of fading is controlled by the concentration of potassium permanganate and the amount of spray. From the effect of the point of view, the monkey fading uniform, the surface layer has fading, and can achieve a strong fading effect. The sand is only discolored on the surface, and physical damage to the fibers can be seen.
12, Pigment wash (Pigment wash /pigment dyed wash), also known as "single-side coating /pigment dyed wash", means that this washing method is specially designed for the garment dyed by paint, its role is to consolidate the original gorgeous color and increase the softness of the hand.