Recommended for dry goods, applying high-tech finishing technology to textile fabrics to increase their functionality to protect textiles from various adverse environmental effects, such as ultraviolet radiation, harsh weather, microorganisms or bacteria, high temperature, chemicals such as acids, alkalis and machinery Wear, etc., the profit and high added value of functional textiles in the world are often realized through finishing.
1. Foam coating technology
Recent developments in foam coating technology. Research by ZUIXIN in India shows that the heat resistance of textile materials is mainly achieved by the large amount of air trapped in the porous structure. To improve the heat resistance of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyurethane (PU)-coated textiles, it is only necessary to add certain blowing agents to the coating formulation. The foaming agent is more effective than the PU coating, which is caused by the foaming agent to form a more effective air-enclosed layer in the PVC coating, and the heat loss of the adjoining surface is reduced by 10%-15%.
2. Silicone finishing technology
ZUIJIA's silicone coating can improve the tear resistance of fabrics by more than 50%. Silicone elastomeric coatings have high flexibility and low elastic modulus, allowing yarn to migrate and form bundles when the fabric is torn. The tear strength of general fabrics is always lower than the tensile strength. However, when coated, the yarn can be moved at the point of tear extension, and two or more yarns can be pushed against each other to form a yarn bundle and significantly improve the tear resistance.
The silicone coating creates a water-repellent effect so that the textile does not absorb as much moisture, preventing the wetting effect from gaining more weight. The silicone rubber layer can filter out most of the harmful ultraviolet rays in sunlight and is soft to the touch. Silicone coatings are now used in airbag fabrics, hot air balloons, paragliders, spinnakers, tents, sleeping bags, and many high-performance athleisure fabrics.
3. Waterproof and oil-repellent finishing technology
The surface of the lotus leaf is a regular microstructured surface that prevents droplets from wetting the surface. This microstructure traps air between the droplets and the surface of the lotus leaf. Lotus leaf has a natural self-cleaning effect, that is, super protective. Germany's Northwestern Textile Research Center is using the potential of a pulsed UV laser to try to mimic this surface. The fiber surface is photonic surface treated with a pulsed UV laser (excited state laser) to generate a regular micron-scale structure.
If modified in a gaseous or liquid active medium, photonic treatment can be performed simultaneously with hydrophobic or oleophobic finishing. In the presence of perfluoro-4-methyl-2-pentene and irradiation, it can bond with the terminal hydrophobic group. Further research work is to perfect the roughness of the modified fiber surface as much as possible and incorporate appropriate hydrophobic/oleophobic groups to obtain super protective properties. This self-cleaning effect and the low maintenance required for use have great potential for application in high-tech fabrics.
4. Antibacterial finishing technology
The existing antibacterial finishing has a wide range, and its basic mode of action includes: interacting with the cell membrane, acting in the process of metabolism or acting in the core material. Oxidants such as acetaldehyde, halogens, peroxides first attack the cell membrane of the microorganism, or penetrate the cytoplasm, acting on its enzymes. Fatty alcohols act as coagulants, irreversibly denaturing protein structures in microorganisms. Chitosan is an inexpensive and readily available antibacterial agent, and the protonated amino group in gum chitosan can bind to the surface of negatively charged bacterial cells to inhibit bacteria. Other compounds, such as halides, isotriazane peroxides, are highly reactive as free radicals because they contain one free electron. Quaternary ammonium compounds, biguanamine and glucosinolate, exhibit exceptional polycationic, porous and absorbent properties. When applied to textile fibers, these antimicrobial chemicals bind to the cell membranes of microorganisms, disrupting the oleophobic polysaccharide structure, ultimately leading to membrane puncture and cell rupture. Silver compounds are used because their complexation prevents the metabolism of microorganisms. However, silver was more effective against negative bacteria than positive bacteria, but less effective against fungi.
5. Anti-felt finishing of worsted wool fabrics
With the increasing awareness of environmental protection, traditional chlorine-containing anti-felt finishing methods are being limited and will be replaced by non-chlorine finishing processes. Non-chlorine oxidation method, plasma technology and enzyme treatment are the inevitable trends of wool anti-felting finishing in the future.
6. Multifunctional composite finishing technology for textiles
At present, the multi-functional composite finishing makes the textile products develop towards the deep-level and high-grade direction, which can not only overcome the shortcomings of the textile itself, but also endow the textile with multi-functionality. Multifunctional composite finishing is a technology that combines two or more functions into one textile to improve the grade and added value of the product.
This technology has been used more and more in the finishing of cotton, wool, silk, chemical fiber, composite and its blended interwoven fabrics.
For example: anti-wrinkle and no-iron/enzyme washing compound finishing, anti-wrinkle and no-iron/decontamination compound finishing, and anti-wrinkle and no-iron/anti-staining compound finishing, which add new functions to the fabric on the basis of anti-wrinkle and no-iron; Fibers with anti-ultraviolet and antibacterial functions can be used as fabrics for swimwear, mountaineering and T-shirts; fibers with waterproof, moisture-permeable, antibacterial functions can be used in comfort underwear; anti-ultraviolet, anti-infrared and antibacterial functions (cool, antibacterial type) fibers, which can be used in high-performance sportswear, casual wear, etc. At the same time, the application of nanomaterials to the composite finishing of pure cotton or cotton/chemical fiber blended fabrics with various functions is also a development trend in the future.