my country is a major exporter of textiles, and the United States is one of my country's main export destinations. Its technical regulations on textiles particularly emphasize the flame retardant performance requirements of textiles.
Since 2021, the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has issued 12 CPSC recall notices on related textiles produced in my country because the flame retardancy of textiles does not meet the US flame retardant standards, posing a risk of burns to consumers. Among them, pajamas are 9. times, 3 times for small carpet products. The main reason is that many companies do not understand the relevant standards of flame retardant fabrics. This printing and dyeing online will take you to understand the relevant standards and tests of flame retardant textiles!
Textile flame retardant
The so-called flame-retardant textiles refer to the textiles or textiles made of flame-retardant fibers after flame-retardant finishing, which reduce the flammability to varying degrees, which can significantly delay the burning rate during the combustion process, and can quickly self-sufficient after leaving the fire source. Non-flammable textiles with less release of toxic fumes.
At present, the flammability of different fabrics is divided into three levels at home and abroad according to the different flame retardant properties of textiles. Among them, level 1 is general combustion characteristics; level 2 is moderate combustion characteristics; level 3 is rapid and violent combustion, and such textiles are not suitable for clothing, especially children's clothing.
routine test method
1. 45 degree burning test method:
Ignite the sample placed in the direction of 45 degrees, and measure the time required for the flame on the sample to burn up a certain distance, or measure the afterburning and smoldering time, damage area and damage length of the sample after burning, or measure the burning time of the sample. The number of times the flame needs to be released at a certain distance from the lower end of the sample. This law applies to the flammability test of textiles for consumption. Compliant standards are: ASTM D1230, FTMS 191-5908, CFR 16 Part1610, CAL IF TB117, NFPA702, GB/T 14644.
2. Horizontal flammability test method:
For the horizontally placed sample ignition to the standard time, the spread distance and time of the flame were measured, and the flame spread rate was used to characterize the flame retardant properties of the fabric. This method is suitable for testing all kinds of textiles, especially automotive interior fabrics. Compliant standards are: ISO 3795, FMVSS 302, DIN 75200, SAE J369, ASTM D5132, JIS D1201, AU169, FZ/T 01028.
3. Vertical combustion test method:
The sample is ignited from directly below the vertically suspended sample strip, and the afterburning time, smoldering time and damage length or area of the sample are tested to evaluate the flame retardant properties of textiles. This method is suitable for testing the combustion characteristics of children's clothing, decorative fabrics, laminated fabrics, coated fabrics, etc. Compliant standards are ASTM D6413-99, DOC-FF 3/71, CALIF TB-117, GB/T 5455, CPAI-84.
my country and the United States textile flame retardant standards
my country's Textile Combustion Regulations
1. GB17591 "Flame Retardant Woven Fabrics"
This standard specifies the product classification, technical requirements, test methods, inspection rules, packaging and marking of flame retardant woven fabrics. The standard divides the flame retardant performance of flame retardant woven fabrics into two levels: 1) B1 level: damage length≤150MM, afterburning time≤5S, smoldering time≤5S; 2) B2 level: damaged length≤200MM, afterburning Time≤15S, smoldering time≤10S. The test method of flame retardant performance is in accordance with GB/T5455. The assessment level is determined according to the use of the product or through negotiation between the supplier and the buyer. Generally, the B1 level is suitable for decorative cloths for consumption and special needs, and the B2 level is suitable for various decorative cloths.
2., GB8965 "flame retardant protective clothing"
This standard specifies the technical requirements, test methods, inspection procedures, marking, packaging, transportation and storage of flame retardant protective clothing. It is only applicable to workers who engage in open flames, emit sparks, operate near molten metal, and operate in flammable substances and have Flame retardant clothing for use in fire hazard locations. The flame retardant properties of the clothing should be tested according to GB/T5455 and meet the B1 level requirements specified in GB17591.
3. GB50222 "Code for Fire Protection of Interior Decoration Design of Buildings"
This standard specifies the flame retardant requirements and test methods for home interior fabrics (such as curtains, curtains, bedspreads, furniture wraps, etc.). According to the GB/T5455 vertical method, the decorative fabrics in underground civil buildings must meet the B1 level requirements, the decorative fabrics in high-rise civil buildings must meet the B1 level requirements, and the bedspreads of residences and hotels in high-rise civil buildings must meet the requirements of grade B1. Class B1 requirements, while curtains, curtains and furniture coverings also meet Class B1 or B2 requirements depending on the building and location.
US Textile Burn Regulations
1. Standard for flammable performance of apparel textiles (16C.F.R1610)
This standard is mainly aimed at wearing textiles (except for hats, gloves, and shoes), and divides the flammability of wearing textiles into three categories. Level 1: Conventional flammability, usually refers to the flame spread time ≥ 3.5S when the surface flat fabric passes the specified method test, or when the surface fleece fabric passes the specified method test, the flame spread time ≥ 7S, such textiles are suitable for use. to make clothes. Level 2: Moderately flammable, usually refers to the fact that when the surface fleece fabric passes the test of the specified method, the flame spread time is 4-7S. Such textiles can also be used for clothing, but with caution; Level 3: Rapid and violent burning, usually refers to When the surface fleece fabric passes the test of the specified method, its flame spread time is less than 4S, and such textiles are not suitable for making clothes. If it is detected to be highly flammable, then according to the regulations, such clothing textiles are not allowed to be traded and traded. The test method in this standard is similar to the American Society for Testing and Materials standard ASTMD1230 (45-degree tilt method), and each test requires 5 specimens measuring 5.08CM (2 inches) × 15.24CM (6 inches), respectively, dry cleaning and test before and after cleaning.
2. Flammability standard of polyethylene plastic film (16C.F.R1611)
This standard is used for non-rigid, unsupported polyethylene plastic films (including transparent, translucent and opaque, flat surface, uneven, cast or other surface flattened), and thickness ≤ 0.33MM Polyethylene plastic film. It is required that the average burning rate of 5 specimens in the longitudinal and transverse directions does not exceed 3CM/S, and the test is carried out according to the test procedure specified in the standard (45-degree inclination method), and the SPI combustion tester is used.
3. Flammability standard for children's pajamas: No. 0-6X (16C.F.R.1615) and No.7-14 (16C.F.R1616)
The flammability standard for children's pajamas (size 0-6X) and the flammability standard for children's pajamas (size 7-14) apply to children's pajamas in sizes 0-6X and 7-14, respectively, including pajamas and similar garments, but diapers, underwear , baby clothes (less than 9 months), tights are not considered children's sleepwear (but they should meet the requirements of 16C.F.R1610 and 16C.F.R1611). The test methods and flame retardant performance requirements specified in the two standards are basically the same. It is required to test five samples of 8.9CM×25.4CM in accordance with the test method (vertical method) specified in the regulations. The average carbon length of the samples is different. More than 17.8CM (7 inches), the charcoal length of a single sample does not exceed 25.4CM (10 inches). In addition, regulations require that all terms of protection requirements be indicated on the permanent label of children's sleepwear.
4. Surface flammability performance standards for carpet products (16C.F.R1630); Surface flammability performance standards for small carpet products (16C.F.R1631)
These two standards apply to all types of carpets and rugs. Carpet (CARPET) refers to a carpet with a one-way size > 1.83M and a surface area > 2.23 square meters for use in homes, offices or hotels. The requirements of the two standards are basically the same, requiring at least 7 out of 8 carpets or mats to be tested to meet the requirements of the standard, and the size of the charred part of a single sample in the test is within the range of 2.54CM to be considered qualified. Test methods and procedures are specified in regulations, and test reports must be given to retailers or distributors. If the carpet or its fibers have a flame retardant finish, it should have a "T" on the label.
5. Standard for Combustion Performance of Mattresses (16C.F.R1632)
Mattresses in this standard include adult, juvenile, infant portable, double-layer, cored waterbeds and airbeds, sofa beds, etc., but sleeping bags, pillows, liquid or gas-filled beds, couchettes, etc. Except for quilted covers. Tested in accordance with the method specified in this standard (Cigarette Method), if the charcoal length does not exceed 50.8 mm (2 inches) in any direction within the cigarette range, the single cigarette experimental portion is considered acceptable. It is generally required to light 18 cigarettes for the test. As long as one part does not meet the standard, the mattress is not qualified. In addition, regulations require that mattress products finished with flame retardants should be marked with a "T" on their labels.
Similarities and Differences in Combustion Standards of Textiles in my country and the United States
1. As far as the evaluation standard of the test method is concerned, most of the samples are ignited by an ignition source. By contacting the sample specified in the standard with the flame for a certain time according to the specified method, and then removing the flame, the time for the fabric to continue to burn with flame and the time for flameless burning, and the degree of damage to the fabric are determined.
2. For the same test method, the standard technical indicators and requirements at home and abroad are basically the same. The US 16CFR 1610 "Flammability Standard for Wearable Textiles" and the Chinese GB/T 14644-1993 adopt the 45° tilt method, and the principle is the same.
The technical indicators of the American standard and the Chinese standard are the same except that the American standard is slightly higher than the Chinese standard (0.5) in the normal flammability grade requirements for non-suede textiles.
3. Test method for the flame retardant performance of textiles - vertical method, American Standard 16CFR 1615 "Flammability Standard for Children's Sleepwear (No. 0-6X)" and 16CFR 1616 "Flammability Standard for Children's Sleepwear (No. 7-14)" and The principle of the test method in GB/T 5455-1997 "Vertical Method of Textile Combustion Performance Test" is basically the same, that is, the flame retardant performance of textiles is evaluated by measuring the afterburning time, smoldering time and carbonization length of the sample.
1. For the same test method - vertical method and 45° direction burning rate measurement method, although the test principle is basically the same, the foreign standards have made detailed provisions on the washing procedure and labeling procedure of textiles, while the Chinese standard lacks this. aspects of the regulations.
2. According to the products and fabrics, the test is divided into two parts: fabric test and clothing test in foreign countries, and they are stipulated respectively. In our country, there is no division of the test of products and fabrics in the test method. At the same time, the foreign clothing test part also includes prototype test and product test. The prototype test can be tested before the garment textiles leave the factory. in accordance with.
3. According to the different relative positions of the sample and the flame and the different testing principles, the methods adopted by the two countries are also different.
Domestic textile export enterprises should pay close attention to the ZUIXIN regulations and standards of domestic and foreign textile and clothing, strengthen standard research, and clarify quality requirements. Check from the "source", select qualified fabric accessories, supplemented by excellent design technology. At the same time, the benchmarking test should be strengthened, and special attention should be paid to the special flammability standards of children's pajamas in the United States, Canada and other countries, so as to avoid the recall of exported textiles due to substandard flame retardancy.